Where Does Inertia Come From?
All objects resist being pushed around, even if there is little or no friction. Once an object is moving, it takes an equivalent amount of effort to stop it, i.e., to change that state of motion. This is a principle called inertia.More scientifically,ラルフローレン ポロシャツ
, inertia is the principle that an object will maintain its state of motion until acted upon by unbalanced forces, i.e. two or more forces that push against the object in such a way that they do not balance out. Of course, if the forces balance out, the object is not going to change where it is currently going.An example of balanced forces is when you are sitting inside a car that is traveling at a constant speed along a flat piece of road. The only forces acting on you at that point is the Earth pulling you down onto the seat and the seat pushing up against you. Relative to the Earth, you maintain your motion for as long as the car does not accelerate or decelerate.Mach's Principle and Einstein's GeodesicsAn interesting point about inertia is that nobody is quite sure what its origin is. We take it for granted that it's a property of objects with mass, but how does an object 'know' how it is moving, so that it can resist efforts to change that movement? Both Galileo and Newton thought that an object somehow 'knows' its movement relative to distant matter,ラルフローレン アウトレット
. In 1863, Ernest Mach published "Die Machanik" in which he formalized this argument of his forerunners. Einstein was greatly influenced by it. In 1918 he named it "Mach's Principle".Einstein's general relativity took the definition of inertia a step further by showing that all objects move through a continuum called 'spacetime' along spacetime geodesics. This simply means that objects take the path of least action (effort) through spacetime, unless acted upon by forces. The matter of the Universe defines the gravitational field and the gravitational field defines the geodesic paths through spacetime.The present scientific view is that the distant galaxies emitted virtual gravitons that traveled through space for billions of years before being absorbed by your body as you're sitting in the car. The resistance of your body to acceleration is wholly or partially due to the interaction between your body and virtual gravitons that were originally emitted billions of years ago by 'living' and long 'dead' stars in distant galaxies. Is that weird, or what?Time-stress the Origin of Inertia?Presently there is another view that is slightly controversial, but far less weird. It says that when you move freely in empty space, the various parts of your body all record time at the same rate. A scientist would say that 'the temporal (time) relations' between all parts of your body remain constant, or that there is no 'temporal stress' on your body.As soon as you are being accelerated, the temporal relations are disturbed and the various parts of your body need to run at their own times. This creates temporal stress inside the body and the body's reaction is to resist this disturbance so that the stress is reduced; hence it shows inertia � it wants to follow its spacetime geodesic with the minimum effort and stress.The beauty of this hypothesis is that it only requires Einstein's rather easy to understand special theory of relativity and not the quite formidable general theory of relativity. Special relativity is mostly about how relative movement influences relative time.Was Einstein Right?We know that Einstein was right with his special theory of relativity,ラルフローレン 店舗
. It has been proven beyond the shadow of a doubt. It may however be that Einstein was wrong on the origin of inertia. Maybe inertia has nothing to do with Mach's principle and the matter of the Universe at large, but just with what's going on within every object's temporal relations.At a 'feet-on-the-ground' level, we are almost continually under stress from the force of gravity and hence our bodies are under constant temporal stress. Yes, the time in our heads do run faster than the time in our feet (unless we are upside down, of course). Add to this the inevitable time-stresses of modern society and it is no wonder that we are all somewhat 'stressed-out'!
Insight Into Classroom Management Plans Implemented in Schools Today
From personal observation,ラルフローレンポロ
, classroom management is probably the most difficult aspect of a teacher�s role. It is not simply to teach curriculum content, but it is to also guide, direct, and empower students to govern their own behavior so that their life within a social setting can be an enjoyable and productive one. It is intended that any management plan address the social needs and challenges of high school level students, and it is for this reason that the Canter Model of Assertive Discipline has been omitted. When considering this model only three things come to mind, �basic teacher rights,� unquestioned compliance to the rules, and punishment rather than discipline. Though this approach to discipline may work well at the elementary level, where decisions are made for the children, this is not as effective with your high school level students who now need to assume a greater responsibility for their own actions and behavior. Please understand that this observed Management Plan is a combination of various discipline models which are conducive to behavioral modification. These are the Glasser Model of �rational choices,� the Dreikers Model of �confronting mistaken goals,ラルフローレン
,� the Skinner Model of �shaping desired behavior,� and the Kounin Model of �withitness, alerting, and group management.� The implementation of a solid management plan, which consistently utilizes the models mentioned, can be crucial to the success of any high school classroom environment.THE MODELCLASSROOM PROCEDURES/ROUTINESThe following are just a few of the classroom procedures which can be used to provide consistent momentum or transitions to avoid what Kounin describes as student satiation. In addition, there will be a few procedures which will focus on Dreikers idea of choosing an acceptable behavior to achieve the desired result. This too can help redirect some of the mistaken goals of students.Entering/Leaving the classroom - when entering the classroom, students are to come in quietly, take out the necessary materials needed for the class, and they are to place their book bags and other items neatly under their desks and out of the aisles. This procedure can provide them with the time they need to settle in and begin the class in an orderly and nondisruptive manner. This procedure, as with every subsequent procedure, should first be explained or described to the students. The students should then be called upon to answer specific questions about proper procedure, and finally the students should actually practice entering and leaving the classroom until they�ve achieved the required result. If this procedure begins to fail at some time during the year, Skinner explains that systematic application may be needed to shape/reinforce a behavior. At that time the students should be taken back through the initial tutorial on entering and leaving the classroom.Starting Class - to begin the class there should be some sort of bell work activity fixed into the daily schedule. This routine allows the teacher to gain the attention and cooperation of the students from the start of the class without personal involvement, which will allow the teacher a transition from one class to the next. The activity can be posted either on the board or on an overhead sheet, and with some reinforcement in the form of a verbal reminder, this routine could be in place in no time.Taking Role - this is a procedure which can best be accomplished if you have implemented a bell work activity upon entering the class. Initially, you should assign seats to each of your students and have your seating chart readily available so that you may take role quickly and quietly while they are all completing the activity. The goal is to take role quickly and move on. There is nothing more amusing to me than recalling Ben Stein�s very popular �role call� in Ferris Bueller's Day Off. Checking Homework - an efficient way to check homework and also stay on or ahead of schedule is to offer students an open notebook homework quiz. This method allows the teacher to pick and choose certain questions given as homework assignments. For example, if the students were given Math homework in Sections three and four of Chapter seven. To check if this assignment has been completed, the students are asked to provide the answers for the following: Section three #�s 15 & 21, Section four #�s 17 & 23. This eliminates the need for notebook checks, which requires that the student turn in his/her notebook overnight for grading, and the student therefore will not lose a night to review his/her notes for future tests. In addition notebook checks will also slow your progress in keeping with the time constraints of the curriculum. This is a more efficient method of monitoring the completion of homework, and will also reward those who have completed their assignments. When students are out of materials - it should be the practice of every teacher to keep on hand enough supplies for at least three students. As part of the rules of the classroom the students are aware that supplies are a necessity, however, no child should be deprived of an education. There should be a learning center where the students will know that they may borrow/rent supplies when needed. This can be maintained by simply requiring that the student borrowing supplies leave his/her student id in a basket located at the learning center to be retrieved once the borrowed item is returned.CLASSROOM RULESThe following are classroom rules that have set the stage for how the classroom will run throughout the year. According to Glasser, the establishment of rules is essential to the success of a classroom. In deciding what rules will be most productive, they must reinforce the basic idea that students are there to learn. If, at the end of each rule, you cannot add, �we are all here to learn,� then the rule should not be imposed. The rules should be sent home to the parent(s), and they along with their student should be required to sign and return this form to the teacher. This will confirm that they, the parent(s) and the student, are aware of the rules of the classroom and the consequences which follow, should the student break his/her signed pledge agreement.Classroom RulesConsequences1. Please have your materials for class everyday (notebook, textbook, pen, pencil, and homework)1. Warning2. Please raise your hand before speaking out in class.2. 15 minute detention - lunch or afternoon3. Please respect the right of others to learn3. 30 minute detention - before or after school4. Come to class ready to participate and learn.4. Call home to parents5. Lastly, there is to be NO fighting.5. Student referred to the office - last resortCONSEQUENCESThe table above details the consequences followed once rules have been broken. By following these consequences for misbehavior, the teacher is reinforcing Glasser�s fundamental idea of �accept no excuses� for bad behavior. The purpose of consequences is to address the misbehavior with out drawing attention to it, or justifying it. The mistaken goal of the student is to gain the attention of his/her peers by misbehaving, and the goal of the teacher is to initially ignore the misbehavior. If this problem persist, it is time to use such tactics as proximity, body language, and finally to ask to speak to him/her after class. Once all else has failed, and the warnings have had no affect, it is time to follow the consequences shown above.INDIVIDUAL/GROUP MOTIVATION/REWARDSFor that occasion when a student finally does what you knew he/she was capable of all along, there are rewards such as free time, and open praise. For times when the class deserves acknowledgment for a job well done, there are rewards such as THE THREE GOOD F�S: Freedom, Food, and Fun. All the things a teacher should remember about being a student. For example, what sort of reward in your high school days did you enjoy most.PREVENTIVE/SUPPORTIVE DISCIPLINEThe following list of preventive/supportive techniques will explain why they should be used to prevent discipline problems:Movement Management - should always have a daily lesson plan with more than enough activities to avoid wasting instruction time.Efficient Help - should make a point of spending no more than 20 seconds helping a student so that the class as a whole stays on task.Group Focus - should call on students randomly to keep the interest of those who are participating and encourage those not participating to do more.Satiation - should know when enough is enough on one particular subject matter, and to move on without a break in instruction (this goes hand in hand with Movement Management)Body Carriage - should reflect confidence in oneself while addressing the class.PARENTAL INVOLVEMENTParents should be informed of the progress and activities of their student as often as possible, and they can be informed either by phone, letter, or e-mail. It should be during the first days of school that a form be sent home with the teachers personal contact information, and with this form there should be a section for parents information and their preferred method of contact. This section should be cut and returned to the teacher, or they can access the teachers� personal web page and fill out the form there remembering to include their students name and class hour.MODEL APPLICATION(Ex. John will not work) John never disrupts the class, but he never completes an assignment. He doesn�t seem to care and is simply there putting forth no effort. How should John be dealt with? Before any action is taken, first evaluate the situation and determine if there are obstacles preventing John from meeting his need for belonging, fun, power, and freedom. Take the time briefly between classes to talk with him about this matter. Remind him that participation is one of the class rules, and that this is a warning. Make certain that he understands that it is his choice in the matter, but help him choose some alternate behaviors and continually encourage him to participate in class. Do not allow John to make excuses for himself: accept no excuses. When he shows improvement, be certain to openly praise him. Lastly, never give up on John.
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